There is a branch of anthropology that measures the size, dimensions and proportions of the human body. This is called anthropometry.Others simply call it body proportions.
As Bill M stated, Leonardo da Vinci has a famous drawing called the Vitruvian Man (named after the Roman architect Vitruvius), a drawing based on correlations da Vinci had made between proportions of the male human anatomy and Vitruvius’ orders of architecture as found in his De Architectura– a treatise of architecture, and the only source of architecture from classical antiquity that has survived.
Some interesting ratios (I’ve included some of the ones you’ve listed):
– The length of a man’s arm span, measured from the tips of the middle fingers, is about equal to his height.
– The length of the nose is about equal to the first two notches/bends (distal and middle phalanges) of the index finger. This is measured from the nasal bridge to the tip of the nose.
– The length of the foot is about equal to the length of the forearm. Or vice versa. The measurement of the forearm is taken from the wrist to the crook of the elbow (the length of the radius).
– The length of the shin (or tibia) is equal to the width of the hip.
– The length of the hand is about equal to the height of the face.
– The width of the base of the nose is about equal to the width of one eye.
– The distance from the bottom of the nose to the (inner) corner of the eye is about equal to the height of the ear.
– The distance between the eyes (inner corner to inner corner) is about equal to the width of one eye.
– The distance between the pupils is about equal to the width of two eyes. (A little tricky, but some basic geometry*)
*I’ll try to roughly explain this. Let’s assume the distance between the eyes IS equal to the width of one eye, and that one eye is 1inch in diameter. The pupil is the center of the eye (or the radius) and basic geometry teaches you that the radius is one half of the diameter. So the radius (or pupil) of the eye would be half an inch. A half inch plus a half inch (radius plus radius) equals the diameter, 1 inch, plus another 1 inch equals two.
Those are just a few of the ones that I can remember. I only listed ones that I have personally tried, and my measurements were pretty accurate.