Practice Notes for July 18, 2021

Meyer Longsword

We learned some new terms today. The first is the Zornhuaw (Wrath Cut). Meyer describes is as…

The Wrath Cut is a diagonal cut from your right shoulder at your opponent’s left ear or through his face and chest, diagonally through as shown by the two crossed lines that pass through the vertical line. This is the strongest of all cuts, and embodies all the might and virility of the combatant against his opponent in dueling and combat; therefore it is also called the Strife Cut [Streithauw] or Father Stroke [Vatterstreich} by the combat masters of old. Concerning these lines you will find hereafter, etc.

The next term we learned was Zucken (Pulling or Twitching). Ringeck describes is as…

When you come against him in Zufechten, strike powerfully from above from your right shoulder in against his head. If he binds against the sword with a parry or suchlike, step in closer to him in the bind and twitch your sword up and away from his and cut back down against him on the other side of the head.

The word Zufechten means “onset” or the “initial stage of combat”. Note that Ringeck adds a step during or just before the twitch.

Meyer offers an option to make it even more tricky. Instead of going to the other side, you stay on the original side and hit with the back-edge of the sword. We will look at this variant in a future lesson.

You can deceive your opponent masterfully with pulling, which is a very good handwork. You shall do it thus: After you have bound your opponent or cut in at his opening with the long edge, then quickly pull back up as if you intended to cut at the other side; however, do not proceed, but quickly complete the cut with the short edge back at the spot from which you have gone away.

As you can see, each basic technique has numerous variants. And the Zucken is just one of several responses to a hard bind from your opponent.


Here are the images we mentioned during the book session.



Scholars of Fiore speculate that the beards represent the difficulty level of the technique. Basic techniques are presented by a clean shaven fencer. A simple moustache and beard represent the next level. A short golden beard comes after that. The most difficult techniques, according to this theory, are indicated with a long golden beard that splits in two as shown above.


On Sundays and Wednesdays the local branch of the SCA practices at Allied Gardens Park. For more information see

I will be hosting craft sessions for woodworking, metal working, leather working, blacksmithing, copper smithing, etc. on Saturday mornings and Wednesday evenings. This is not a Scholars of Alcala event. If you wish to participate contact me directly at

SoCal Sword is now taking orders. We generally use Blackfencer swords.

We also use Pentti swords, which are imported by Purpleheart Armory.

Next Week

After warmups, we will start with Agrippa’s Prima. This will include both attacks and defensive actions. Handouts on this material will be provided in class.


Then we’ll look at the longsword equivalent known as Ochs. Again, we’ll be looking at a mix of offensive and defensive actions from this posture including the thrust. This material can be found in chapter 2 of your Meyer Longsword study guide. Bring your study guide so you can take notes.


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Practice Notes for Sept 21-27

L’Ange Rapier


Review the basic footwork, alone and while in guard. Introduction to the guards.


Review the basic footwork, alone and while in guard.

Practiced lunges, focusing on off-line steps and putting the off-hand in the correct location.

Meyer Longsword

Reviewed Chapter 11: Fighting from the Postures, Tag plays 1 thru 4. The emphasis during this session was working the sides and avoiding staying on the central line.

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Meyer: Rethinking Footwork

In longsword chapter 10, there’s an exercise informally known as Meyer’s Cross. (Or “Meyer’s Square” for those people who don’t know what a square looks like.)


The default footwork for this is alternating passing steps to the left and right. Taking the first (red) or second (blue) pattern, it would look something like this:


Notice the line down the center. This is the danger zone, the place where the opponent can most easily attack. And every step keeps you on that line. For a drill that just teaches you to perform combination attacks, that ok. But in a real match that’s the last place you want to be.

So taking the advice of Colin Richards, I’ve rewritten the footwork for the drill. First, the passage that forms a cornerstone of this theory.

Also know that one should move to his right side with his
attacks instead of moving directly in from the front, because
when one knows of this method, and practices and succeeds in
doing this in all fencing or wrestling, he certainly is not a bad

–Ms. 3227a, Translated by Thomas Stoeppler

Mr. Richards calls this “working the right”. With it in mind, this is our new way of doing the drill. (This is a rough sketch, the actual foot placement doesn’t look exactly like this.)


The first two steps are the same, but on the 3rd cut you take a cross-step to the left. This brings you completely clear of the original line and puts the opponent in the position of having to try to reestablish his orientation. But as he turns, the fourth cut bring you even further to his right. In such manner you may find yourself beside or even behind your opponent.

For the patterns that start with a cut from the left, you’ll end up performing two cross steps. Otherwise it works the same way, always moving to the opponent’s right.

The specific cuts used are going to be a little different. Because the off-line steps change your blade relationships, you gain the ability to perform some actions that would have been too dangerous otherwise.

For example, consider the sequence that begins with a rising cut form the left. After binding with a descending cut from the right (2nd cut in the pattern), you can quickly turn a rising cut from the right to the left arm. Your right-hand doesn’t move in this action, it is driven purely by the left. Besides allowing a bonus hit, this chambers the sword for the descending cut from the left (3rd cut in the pattern).

If you were to try this with the normal footwork, you would get hit as soon as you left the bind. But because you are so far off the line by this point, the opponent doesn’t have a direct attack.

Further research is needed to see how we can apply this concept to other drills from Meyer.

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L’Ange: Changing our Rapier Footwork

Up until now we used this footwork pattern for obtaining a constraint. (Only the right foot is shown.)


1: Patient stands in guard of Tertia. The Agent stands in Quarta on the inside. Start far enough apart that the swords are not crossing.

2: The Agent steps forward with an advance, the front-foot moving forward no more than two foot-lengths. At the same time, constrain the weak of the sword as shown in the illustration above.

3: The Agent steps forward with a compass step to the left, rotating the body slightly to redefine the angle between the fencers. At the same time, sword is repositioned so that the cross is low on the Agent’s sword while still high on the Patient’s sword.

4: The Agent extends his sword forward into Quatra, with a lean of the body and a slope step of the right foot to the left. The final position should look like illustration 8 on the previous page. Note the use of the left hand for added defense.

This pattern is based on the idea of shifting the line of engagement so that you can form a strong constraint without touching blades. And it works more or less, especially when your opponent likewise insists on not making blade contact prior to the lunge.

I didn’t invent this pattern, but I’m not going to reveal the source in case they are no longer teaching it this way or I misinterpreted it. I will say that I learned it in the context of Giganti.

What changed?

After attending some lectures and classes at the SoCal Swordfight, I no longer like this approach. The constant theme across all of the classes I took was “Move! Get off the center line!”. This was expressed in a variety of ways, but the core idea of not staying where you can be hit is paramount.

In the Myles Cupp’s Fabris lecture, one of the footwork options was to step towards the opponent’s blade. You don’t have to push hard against it, in fact you shouldn’t, but by shifting the line slightly to the left you close out the straight line. Here’s the actual quote,

As you advance into misura larga, [do not] place that first step into misura larga along the straight line that you have been following – that is, not towards his body or in the line of his point – but rather on the side on which you place your sword to shut his out… with this you will be doing two things. 1. The step with which you enter into misura larga will not be on the same straight line along which you advanced towards him, so that his point will not be in your body’s presence. This allows you to shut out his point and be safer.

Vienna Anonymous, p.45. trans. Tom Leoni 2019.

Using this advice, we modify the footwork pattern to be:


1: Patient stands in guard of Tertia. The Agent stands in Quarta on the inside. Start far enough apart that the swords are not crossing.

2: The Agent steps forward with an advance, the front-foot moving forward no more than two foot-lengths. At the same time, constrain the weak of the sword as shown in the illustration above.

3: The Agent steps forward-left with a slope step. At the same time, sword is repositioned so that the cross is low on the Agent’s sword while still high on the Patient’s sword. Apply no or light pressure to the Patient’s sword.

4: The Agent extends his sword forward into Quatra, with a lean of the body and an increase of the right foot. The final position should look like illustration 8 on the previous page. Note the use of the left hand for added defense.

When applied to L`Ange’s Chapter 7 drill, we found this technique to have a higher attack success rate without compromising defense. And it just felt more natural.

I’ll end this post with another quote from Vienna Anonymous,

While you lift your foot to enter into misura larga (and before you place it again on the ground), you must gain an advantage by doing one of the following five things. Choose depending on what the opponent is doing with his sword.

  1. Gain his sword.
  2. Shut out his sword.
  3. Remove your body from his sword’s presence while shutting out his sword even more.
  4. Aim your sword at his sword-hand.
  5. Place him under the obligation to parry.
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Practice Notes for Sunday, Dec 15, 2019

We covered a lot of material in Sunday’s rapier class. For your benefit, I’ve taken the time to writing up some notes and posting them in our new website.’Ange/p/Main/t/commentary

The new sections are:

Chapter 4: How You Shall Recognize the Near and Wide Measure
Chapter 5: About the Movement of the Body
Chapter 6: How You Shall Approach
Chapter 7: How You Shall Lunge
* Lunge in Quarta
* Lunge in Tertia

There are also some old videos on this site. We intend to refilm them using the new knowledge that we’ve gained over the last couple of months.

Speaking of the new website, it is now setup so that you can use it to take notes. Once you login, you can go to the page for the play we’re studying and hit “Add Commentary”. There is a box for private notes and one for public commentary that others can see.


In sword and buckler we worked on Manciolino Alta Play 3. Josh and I are planning to make a video based on what we learned next week. Once that’s ready I’ll also add my commentary on the play.

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New Gorget Done

It only took me a decade to get off my ass and finish strapping this, but we’ve got one more gorget for the loaner kit.

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Antique Sparring Longsword

There are only a couple dozen antique sparring longswords left in the world. This is one of the three that are in North America.



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Is the edge or back of a blade stronger?

Well of course it depends on the blade. But if we’re talking about Japanese swords, we have an excellent source with both historic and scientific information.

Just to make things interesting, let me translate an account by another Japanese swordsman. This passage appears in a book by ISHIGAKI Yasuzô, whose father and grandfather both were headmasters of one of the main lineages of the Jikishinkageryû. This tradition rose to prominence during the late Tokugawa period, and many of its students became involved in the duels, revolutionary and counter-revolutionary activities of that time. As a result, members of that school emphasized the importance of owning a properly fitted sword. Ishikagi’s book is titled: Jikishinkageryû gokui denkai (Revealing the Pivotal Points of the Jikishinkage Style of Swordsmanship; 1992, revised 2001).

Again, this translation is NOT presented as the gospel truth. I do not accept Ishigaki one hundred per cent. Nonetheless, since views similar to his are commonly voiced in Japan, I believe they are worth our consideration and comment.


Ishigaki writes:

This concludes my explanation of the gokui (pivotal points) and kuden (oral initiations) regarding the Jikishinkageryû’s “Tachi seisaku kokoroe” (Sword Fabrication Conventions), none of which have ever before been revealed to the public.

Before ending this section, though, I must emphasize that no matter how much care one might exercise in assembling one’s sword furniture, no matter how excellent the quality of the sword furniture used, it is totally pointless unless one fits them to a reliable sword blade that is free from flaws. A trained swordsman must select a wazamono (good cutting sword) that is balanced, free from defects, and properly forged from quality steel so that it will not easily bend or break.

Avoid striking with the back of the blade (mune uchi).

In chanbara (sword play) movies and television shows frequently depict scenes in which the hero flips his sword around and strikes with the back of the blade. Supposedly he does so to indicate that he has no intention of cutting (i.e., killing) human beings, but [in reality] he could never have sufficient numbers of blades to do so. Because swords are weapons designed for cutting, they are forged so that their strength lies in the cutting edge of the blades. The backs of sword blades are their weakest points.

The book Ten buyôron (Treatise on Swords for Military Applications) by the famous shin-shintô (New-New Sword Period; i.e., post ca. 1781) swordsmith, Suishinshi Masahide, describes numerous incidents when a sword broke from being struck on its back. I will briefly mention a few of them.

[Note: Suishinshi Masahide (a.k.a. Kawabe Masahide, 1750–1825) almost single-handedly began the New New Sword movement through his exhaustive investigation of and revival of Old Sword manufacturing techniques. He trained over a hundred disciples, many of whom became noted smiths.—W.B.]

(1) There was a man named Terada who lived in the same Akimoto Domain as Suishinshi. One night while at home Terada used the back of his sword blade to strike a burglar. The sword broke in half and the tip flew into the next-door neighbor’s house. It was a sword made by Mizuda Kunishige with a very wavy (ô midare) edge pattern.

(2) An underling in the same Akimoto Domain struck a dog with the back of his wakizashi. The wakizashi broke in half and the dog ran away. The sword was an unsigned blade with a very wavy edge pattern.

(3) One of Suishinshi’s disciples, a man named Kobayashi Masaoki, was talking to a retainer (i.e., samurai) named Motoyama from the Awa Domain when he happened to mention that long shintô (New Swords; i.e., blades manufactured between ca. 1570 and 1780) break very easily. Thereupon, Motoyama said, “If that is so, then here, take my katana and try to break it,” and presented Kobayashi with his sword. When Kobayashi struck the back of the blade against one of the stones in the garden, it snapped like an icicle.

(4) The Awa Domain retainer named Motoyama had tested the cutting ability of swords produced by various smiths, but he had never tested them for durability. Acting under orders from his lord, he proceeded to test a wide variety of swords, including ones that had been made by Inoue Kunisada, Echigo-no-kami Kanesada, Osafune Sukesada, Suishinshi Masahide, and many others. When the back of blades were struck against one another (i.e., mune to mune), all of the long swords broke and almost all of the short swords cracked along their cutting edges.

(5) A porter in the Okayama Domain used the back of his sword to strike a thief. The sword blade broke in half. Thereupon, the porter picked up a bamboo pole and used it to knock the thief off of his feet. The porter tied up the thief, and inspected him for injuries. The thief had a big bruise where he had been struck by the bamboo, but no mark could be seen where he had been hit by the back of the sword blade.

(6) A warrior named Nagai in Kôzuke Province tried to test his sword by striking the back of the blade against the side of his house. With the first blow the sword broke into three pieces. It was a long sword made by Kawauch-no-kami Kunisuke.

The above incidents relate eye-witness accounts of swords breaking when struck on their backs. In addition, there is the well known story of Araki Mataemon of the Yagyû Shinkageryû. In 1634 when Araki and his brother-in-law, Watanabe Kazuma, were attacked by Kawai Matagorô and Sakurai Hanbei, Araki’s sword broke in half as a result of being struck on its backside. The sword was a wazamono that measured 2.77 shaku (about 84 cm) made by Rai Kanemichi.

During the war years durability tests were conducted on military swords. In 1943 I witnessed a public demonstration of these tests outside a department store near Ueno Park in Tokyo. The test consisted of dropping a iron ball about 50 cm in diameter and weighing about three kanme (about 11 kg) onto the center of a sword blade to see if it would bend or break. The results of this test showed that if the weight was dropped on the cutting edge of the sword, hardly any damage could be observed. But the sword broke easily when the weight was dropped on its back even if only from a height of 15 cm. It demonstrated just how weak the back of a sword blade is.

Students of kenjutsu should know that even if they select a wazamono that is balanced, free from defects, and properly forged from quality steel so that it will not easily bend or break, that the back of the blade still is its weakest point and that, therefore, they must not imitate the actors in movies and television shows.


The end of Ishigaki’s remarks.


William Bodiford
Dept. of Asian Languages & Cultures



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Blacksmiths Slate

When making something to a specific size, you often have to follow a pattern. But a normal paper pattern will catch on fire. So you need a slate.

Any piece of rusty sheet metal 10-12″ a side will work for most patterns. Put chalk dust on the back of your pattern, then trace the pattern onto the slate with a blunt pencil. The rust acts as a dark background for the light chalk.

Note that I said rusty, so no aluminum (won’t rust), stainless (shouldn’t rust), or galvanized (will poison you if it gets too hot).


Now like a bone head I forgot to wet my fresh metal and now I don’t have time before class. So I’m using gun blue instead. The metal is already clean, so I just need to apply it.

Make sure you dry and oil it afterwards so it doesn’t rust… um well I guess that doesn’t matter in this case.

Next I docked the sharp corners using my trusty old harbor freight shear.

It’s a bit floppy, so I used brake to bend up one edge. (Could do two or even all four, but even one helps a lot.)

Then I closed the seam with a small anvil and brass mallet. I want it nice and tight so my metal will lie flat on the slate.

The corners still bug me, so belt sander time. (Files would work too.)

Cool. Now I just need to blue it again because I scratched it all up with the anvil. Next time, bluing goes last.

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Thibault on Reach with Shoulder vs Wrist Cuts

In this illustration from Thibault (chapter 1, figure F) you can see the difference in reach between a wrist cut and a cut from the shoulder.


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